Les propriétaires d’installations photovoltaïques veulent naturellement recueillir le plus de soleil possible. Cependant, que se passe-t-il si un arbre, une cheminée ou même une maison voisine génère de l’ombre sur les panneaux photovoltaïques ? Aucun problème car SMA a la solution adaptée en fonction de la quantité d’ombrage.

Dans cet article, nous vous présenterons nos solutions et vous expliquerons quelle option choisir suivant la situation.

1. OptiTrac Global Peak : gestion de l’ombrage inclus dans l’onduleur SMA

Le tracker MPP de l’onduleur solaire a une influence décisive sur la production énergétique d’une installation photovoltaïque partiellement ombragée. Il exploite en permanence les modules photovoltaïques qui lui sont affectés à leur puissance optimale, également connu sous le nom de point de puissance maximale (MPP).

 

Nous avons optimisé le MPP tracking grâce à la fonction de gestion de l’ombrage OptiTrac Global Peak, spécialement développée pour les systèmes PV impactés par environ 15-20 % d’ombrage. Cette fonctionnalité équipe tous les onduleurs string SMA. En cas d’ombrage, OptiTrac Global Peak reconnaît automatiquement les performances maximales globales du module affecté et peut donc utiliser presque entièrement l’énergie disponible d’une chaîne partiellement ombragée.

Les avantages d’OptiTrac Global Peak

  • Gestion de l’ombrage gratuite et intégrée
  • Aucun dispositif auxiliaire nécessaire
  • Rendement énergétique cinq fois plus élevé, sans coûts supplémentaires

Dans cette vidéo, découvrez comment fonctionne OptiTrac Global Peak :

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2. Optimiseurs SMA TS4-R-O

Si plus de 20 % des panneaux photovoltaïques sont ombragés au cours de la journée, il est judicieux d’équiper le système photovoltaïque d’optimiseurs SMA TS4-R-O. L’optimiseur permet un suivi MPP à l’échelle du module photovoltaïque et permet ainsi d’optimiser les rendements énergétiques des modules, même en cas d’ombrage.

Avantages de l’optimiseur SMA
  • Gestion de l’ombrage à l’échelle du module
  • Seuls les modules affectés par l’ombrage doivent être équipés d’un optimiseur
  • Rapide et facile à installer
  • Jusqu’à 10 % de rendement énergétique en plus

Cette vidéo vous montre comment fonctionne l’optimiseur SMA :

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In a timely reminder for the national negotiators now starting their work in Bonn (dubbed ‘Fiji on the Rhine’ given the Presidency) at COP23, PwC recently released their annual Low Carbon Economy Index, which showed yet again that current emission reduction plans for the global economy do not match the goal of the Paris Agreement.

PWC Paris Pledges

While a handful of economies are in the ballpark of the required trajectory, these are by far the exception rather than the rule.

PWC Intensity Chart

The annual UNEP Gap Report has also just been released and arrives at a similar conclusion, with Erik Solheim, head of UN Environment saying;

“One year after the Paris Agreement entered into force, we still find ourselves in a situation where we are not doing nearly enough to save hundreds of millions of people from a miserable future.”

The key issue with a cumulative problem such as the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide, is that the correction required becomes steeper with each passing year that the build-up goes unchecked. Say for example that the 2°C goal requires a linear reduction in emissions from 2015 to 2075, i.e. from 40 Gt per annum CO2 to net-zero in 60 years, with the area under that line being 1,200 Gt (40*60/2). If the first five years, i.e. from 2015 to 2020, result in a flat trajectory with no reductions, then the resulting trajectory from 2020 must reach net-zero by 2070 for the same total cumulative emissions. This means that every year of delay to the point at which emissions start falling means a year earlier in terms of reaching net-zero.

The Paris Agreement attempts to deal with this by utilizing its 5-year ratchet mechanism, where every five years the nationally determined contributions (NDC) are progressively ratcheted in terms of ambition. But the Agreement gives no guidance as to how that ratchet mechanism will work, other than the timetable on which it operates. It does however assume that information will be offered through the global stocktake, which will also operate on a 5-year cycle. The Paris Agreement says;

Each Party shall communicate a nationally determined contribution every five years.

 Each Party’s successive nationally determined contribution will represent a progression beyond the Party’s then current nationally determined contribution and reflect its highest possible ambition.

 The Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement shall undertake its first global stocktake in 2023 and every five years thereafter unless otherwise decided by the Conference of the Parties serving as the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement.

 The outcome of the global stocktake shall inform Parties in updating and enhancing, in a nationally determined manner, their actions and support in accordance with the relevant provisions of this Agreement, as well as in enhancing international cooperation for climate action.

In addition, the Decision Text to the Paris Agreement offers an early process to take stock, to inform the first round of NDC updates and requests with urgency that the Parties revise their NDCs with a first update in 2020.

Decides to convene a facilitative dialogue among Parties in 2018 to take stock of the collective efforts of Parties in relation to progress towards the long-term goal referred to in Article 4, paragraph 1, of the Agreement and to inform the preparation of nationally determined contributions pursuant to Article 4, paragraph 8, of the Agreement.

 Urges those Parties whose intended nationally determined contribution pursuant to decision 1/CP.20 contains a time frame up to 2025 to communicate by 2020 a new nationally determined contribution and to do so every five years thereafter pursuant to Article 4, paragraph 9, of the Agreement;

 Requests those Parties whose intended nationally determined contribution pursuant to decision 1/CP.20 contains a time frame up to 2030 to communicate or update by 2020 these contributions and to do so every five years thereafter pursuant to Article 4, paragraph 9, of the Agreement;

So, there is a mechanism in place, but no real detail on its operation. The maths behind the process should be straightforward, based on cumulative emissions to date and cumulative emissions remaining for a 2°C goal. The UNFCCC has already published data on the cumulative emissions impact of the NDCs. In addition, the IPCC 5th Assessment Report and forthcoming special report on a 1.5°C offer advice on the total cumulative emissions for a given warming limit, so the data to do the maths is available. What is lacking however, is any translation of this maths to the NDCs.

For the Paris Agreement to deliver on its goal, this problem will need considerable attention. Although the NDCs are nationally determined, a foundation principle of the Agreement, that determination cannot take place in a vacuum, with national eyes simply focused inwards. That is presumably the reason for the five-yearly stocktakes and the facilitative dialogue in 2018.

Yet, it is not the prerogative of the UNFCCC to make decisions on national actions nor is there even a clear role for the COP or CMA (the meeting of the Parties to the Paris Agreement) in coercing Parties to adopt NDCs that reflect the climate goals of the Agreement. Rather, the pressure comes from the Agreement itself, embedded in many places, but never with absolute clarity. For example, Parties are asked to prepare long-term low greenhouse gas emission development strategies, to be informed by the global stock-take and to work cooperatively together, all of which should facilitate progress towards a common goal.

Article 13 of the Paris Agreement sets out the need for an enhanced transparency framework, which perhaps comes closest to the coercive role that is needed to push the Parties towards a successful outcome. The purpose of the framework is clearly stated in 13.5;

The purpose of the framework for transparency of action is to provide a clear understanding of climate change action in the light of the objective of the Convention as set out in its Article 2, including clarity and tracking of progress towards achieving Parties’ individual nationally determined contributions under Article 4, and Parties’ adaptation actions under Article 7, including good practices, priorities, needs and gaps, to inform the global stocktake under Article 14.

The task that now confronts the negotiators in Bonn is to turn this into a set of modalities and procedures that brings reality to the process of establishing and implementing NDCs. This will not be an easy task in that they will be caught between the rock that is national sovereignty and the hard place that is reflected in the climate maths above. But unless progress is made in this area, the Paris Agreement will forever struggle to effectively and efficiently deliver on its goals.

COP 23 needs to confront this challenge head on!

India’s renewable energy push is a commendable shift that promises to bring socio-economic change and drive progress. Government support has been the primary force behind this growth and scaling from 10 MW of solar capacity in 2010 to 13 GW in 2017. Besides utility scale installations, Government support has spurred a growth trend within rooftop solar sector, showing a 72 MW per year to 227 MW per year growth since 2013. Presently, India has near about 1,660 MW of installed capacity in rooftop solar sector. And expected 90% year-over-year growth expectancy within the solar sector, promised to increase rooftop solar installed capacity.

Although, solarisation within the country is growing, our green energy future is still not in our control. Government initiatives like Make in India, Power for All, Surya Mitra, and even the 100 GW target by 2022 revolves around immediate solarisation and socio-economic growth of the country. However, as our present solar growth depends on importing solar modules, the core purpose behind green energy shift still remains unrealized.

Continuous Solar Module Imports and Its Effect

India has imported approximately 161.5 million solar panels in FY 2014–15 amounting to almost $821mn, which is a 15.45% ($ mn) growth over last year’s expenditure of $711.12 mn. In FY 15-16, the expenditure jumped to $2.3 bn and within FY16-17, India spent $3.2 billion in solar equipment imports, which is about 35 times its solar equipment export. Records show that within April-July FY 17-18, Indian solar module import expense has already reached $1.5bn, estimated to surpass past year records. Chinese modules being 8-10% cheaper than the domestically manufactured modules are the reason behind such unwavering focus on importing solar modules.

However, increase in solar module imports has also led to drastic fall in tariff. India has seen solar tariff fall from Rs 12.76-10 per kWh in 2010-11 to INR 2.44/per unit in 2017 (near about 90 per cent fall). Decreasing solar tariff is making solar projects financially unviable, by shrinking down the ROI generation. This is scaring off investors and putting Indian solar growth on an unstable ground.

Increase in imports has also reduced demand for domestic manufacturers (8 out of 10 module suppliers within India are Chinese), which has made existing capacity utilization an unfair challenge, and capacity enhancement moot.

These practices are increasing forex outflow, allowing foreign (Chinese) suppliers more than 80% of the domestic industry, blocking the road to job creation, and pushing out India from the highly lucrative solar export market. All this is leading India to practically import the solar dream, making it costly to realize a fraction of the idea, while the primary purpose remains frozen.

Manufacturing Scenario and Its Importance

Solar energy source is free indeed, but the components used to harvest the energy (solar panels) are not. Therefore, it is easy to understand that allowing solar manufacturing industry to centralize in foreign countries, will lead India to spend money for energy just like importing fossil fuels.

Countries like- China and the US have understood this and have aggressively expanded their domestic manufacturing capacity, thus controlling the price and improving the quality of panels. With better products and cheaper price, China and the US have claimed large portions of the global market through exports, becoming leaders in the solar industry. Although, Indian Government has introduced Make in India, Power for All, and brought DCR quota projects to help increase demand for domestic manufacturers; delays in awarding projects, lack of investment in domestic manufacturing, lack of R&D have allowed limited growth in capacity enhancement and utilization.

Limited involvement in domestic capacity enhancement and utilization, will only result in limited or disproportionate growth of Indian industrial structure. Which is far away from making Indian solar industry global competitive.

The Right Decision for Growth

If the country focuses on reducing imports and utilizing domestic capacities, it will help India save up to $42 billion in equipment imports by 2030 in solar industry only. Besides concentrating on domestic manufacturing will urge in R&D development, thus helping India improve module quality and control product prices, winning a considerable position in the export market.

Expanding domestic manufacturing capacity and utilizing it can become the advantage for India, that dominant solar countries are already enjoying. It will help India develop an industrial eco-system controlling solar component supply chain, bringing in industrial growth, creating jobs, and ultimately, introduce socio-economic growth.

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– Schneider Electric supplies design and engineering services, solar products, and electrical distribution equipment

– House by Northwestern was awarded first place in Market Potential and Communications, as well as third place in Engineering

– Solar Decathlon is a collegiate competition challenging student teams to design and build full-size, solar-powered houses

ANDOVER, Mass., Oct. 26, 2017 /PRNewswire/ — Schneider Electric, the global specialist in energy management and automation, is a lead sponsor of the 2017 U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon, one of the largest global university competitions focused on home energy management. Schneider Electric supplied the electrical distribution equipment required to connect the solar village to the utility service for the duration of the event, provided distribution and a Conext XW+ hybrid inverter for solar power to the house by Team Northwestern University and provided more than 50 local employees to staff the event.

Solar Decathlon, which took place on Oct. 4 -15, is a 10-day collegiate competition that challenges university students to design, build and operate solar-powered houses that are cost effective and energy efficient. The winner of the competition is the team that best blends affordability, consumer appeal and design excellence with maximum efficiency.

“Solar Decathlon not only provides students with unique training that prepares them for the clean energy workforce, but it educates them about the latest advancements in energy efficient design, clean energy technologies, smart home solutions and sustainable buildings,” said Kevin Self, senior vice president of Strategy, Business Development and Government Affairs, Schneider Electric. “We’re pleased to help future generations incorporate sustainability and efficiency at the heart of their designs.”

In addition, Schneider Electric, who has been a lead sponsor for the competition since 2009, sponsored the Northwestern University team. The house built by Northwestern University, named “Enable,” was awarded first place in Market Potential, first place in Communications and third place in Engineering. The team was also one of the three teams that won the six juried contests and were voted the most “Super Awesome House” by thousands of middle school students that visited the event.

“House by Northwestern is a home that people immediately connected with and represents a model of our capability to provide sustainability without compromise and to lead the digital transformation of energy management and automation in future residential buildings,” said Professor Dick Co, faculty director of House by Northwestern. “We’re grateful that Schneider Electric has been a supporter of ours since day one, and we look forward to continue working together in the future.”

Since its inception in 2002, the Solar Decathlon competition has been a driving force in creating renewable energy and energy efficiency awareness. The technologies and solutions used in Solar Decathlon houses have advanced the residential building industry, both in the United States and abroad. For additional information on Solar Decathlon and the participating teams visit www.solardecathlon.gov.

About Schneider Electric

Schneider Electric is leading the Digital Transformation of Energy Management and Automation in Homes, Buildings, Data Centers, Infrastructure and Industries. With global presence in over 100 countries, Schneider is the undisputable leader in Power Management – Medium Voltage, Low Voltage and Secure Power, and in Automation Systems. We provide integrated efficiency solutions, combining energy, automation and software. In our global Ecosystem, we collaborate with the largest Partner, Integrator and Developer Community on our Open Platform to deliver real-time control and operational efficiency. We believe that great people and partners make Schneider a great company and that our commitment to Innovation, Diversity and Sustainability ensures that Life Is On everywhere, for everyone and at every moment.

Hashtags: #LifeisOn #SolarPower

www.solar.schneider-electric.com/
www.schneider-electric.com

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