Abstract

Pakistan's power sector underwent a substantial, if protracted, reform process. Beginning with an independent power producer program in 1994, the full unbundling of the national vertically integrated power and water utility, the Water and Power Development... See More + Pakistan's power sector underwent a substantial, if protracted, reform process. Beginning with an independent power producer program in 1994, the full unbundling of the national vertically integrated power and water utility, the Water and Power Development Authority, and the establishment of a regulatory entity, the National Electric Power Regulatory Authority, followed in 1997, paving the way for the eventual privatization of one major distribution utility, Karachi Electric, in 2005. Plans to privatize the remaining distribution utilities were shelved following the controversy surrounding the Karachi Electric transaction. A single buyer model has been in operation since the sector restructuring, with the Central Power Purchasing Agency fully separated from transmission and dispatch (the National Transmission and Dispatch Company) in June 2015. Despite these major steps, Pakistan has continued to suffer from inadequate capacity and other constraints, leading to large and frequent blackouts. At the heart of the impasse is the so-called "circular debt" crisis, whereby distribution utilities struggling to collect revenues and meet regulatory targets for transmission and distribution losses default on their payments to generators, and the sector is periodically bailed out by the government once losses accumulate to intolerable levels, at high cost to the exchequer. This dynamic has undermined incentives for utilities to improve their efficiency, while discouraging generators from investing in new capacity to address supply shortages. In the meantime, little has been done to accelerate access to electricity to the significant share of unserved population in rural areas.  See Less -

Read more: Learning from Power Sector Reform...

Abstract

Welcome to the Spring 2019 edition of the World Bank's Madagascar Economic Update, which presents recent economic developments and our medium-term outlook. The economy has continued to perform well, with growth in 2018 estimated at 5.2 percent, above ... See More + Welcome to the Spring 2019 edition of the World Bank's Madagascar Economic Update, which presents recent economic developments and our medium-term outlook. The economy has continued to perform well, with growth in 2018 estimated at 5.2 percent, above regional and global averages. External demand for Malagasy goods and services remains strong, with exports such as cash crops, metals and business process outsourcing performing well. A small but dynamic private sector is responding to this increased economic activity with banking, logistics and services to support companies all under expansion. This edition of economic update focuses on managing fuel pricing.  See Less -

Document also available in : English

Read more: Madagascar Economic Update...

Abstract

Welcome to the Spring 2019 edition of the World Bank's Madagascar Economic Update, which presents recent economic developments and our medium-term outlook. The economy has continued to perform well, with growth in 2018 estimated at 5.2 percent, above ... See More + Welcome to the Spring 2019 edition of the World Bank's Madagascar Economic Update, which presents recent economic developments and our medium-term outlook. The economy has continued to perform well, with growth in 2018 estimated at 5.2 percent, above regional and global averages. External demand for Malagasy goods and services remains strong, with exports such as cash crops, metals and business process outsourcing performing well. A small but dynamic private sector is responding to this increased economic activity with banking, logistics and services to support companies all under expansion. This edition of economic update focuses on managing fuel pricing.  See Less -

Document also available in : French

Read more: Madagascar Economic Update...

Abstract

Petroleum discovery in a country presents its policy makers with a challenging and complex task: formulating and agreeing on policies that will shape the country’s petroleum sector and guide the translation of the newly discovered resources into equitable... See More + Petroleum discovery in a country presents its policy makers with a challenging and complex task: formulating and agreeing on policies that will shape the country’s petroleum sector and guide the translation of the newly discovered resources into equitable and sustainable economic and social growth for the nation over the long term. Balancing Petroleum Policy provides policy makers and other stakeholders with the basic sector-related knowledge they need to embark on this task. It introduces a number of topics: the petroleum value chain and pivotal factors affecting value creation, a consultative process for developing a nation’s common vision on key petroleum development objectives, design of a legislative and contractual framework, petroleum fiscal regimes and their administration, prudent fiscal management, transparency and governance, environmental and social safeguards, and economic diversification through industrial linkages. Although much of the material is relevant to designing policies for the development of the petroleum sector in general, the book gives special focus to developing countries, countries in a federal or devolved setting, and countries that have experienced or are still experiencing civil conflict. With this focus in mind, the book examines three questions—ownership, management, and revenue sharing of petroleum resources—that are central to petroleum policy in any federal or devolved state. It also offers important perspectives on how to prevent violent conflicts related to such resources. Petroleum policies tend to vary significantly from country to country, as do the objectives that such policies aim to achieve in the specific context of each particular country. Although there is no one-size-fits-all policy and there are no clear-cut answers to the many potential policy dilemmas associated with the discovery of petroleum resources, this publication may help policy makers find the right balance among the chosen objectives—and the right policy choices to achieve these objectives.  See Less -

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