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1. India’s coal demand is likely to reach a peak for thermal power generation during the 2025-27 time frame. This has significant planning implications for the coal and logistics ecosystem.

2. The strong demand surge for solar power would be driven by the relative economics; however, technical  issues related to grid integration remain a concern.India doesn’t seem to be taking adequate action to address this. As per our simulation, day time Plant Load Factors (PLFs) of coal plants are expected fall to 38 per cent in a 100 GW solar power scenario by 2022. Thermal plants in India may not be ready to handle such low PLFs

3. The competition from solar is certain to lead to pressures on coal pricing as well. Coal companies willhave to work urgently on efficiency measures and cost reduction.

4. The wide scale deployment of solar is expected to impact the revenues of the Indian Railways as coal plants further away from coal sources are less likely to get dispatched as per the merit order.

5. Various ecosystem players will need to respond to this high renewable energy scenario in different ways. The ecosystem players include equipment makers for thermal power generation, mining companies and EPC providers. New opportunities are likely to emerge in areas such as grid integration-related services, electricity storage and even electric vehicles. 

 

2016 was a record year for solar. A total of 76.6 GW was installed and connected to the grid in 2016. That’s a 50% year-on-year growth over the 51.2 GW installed in 2015 and the third highest rate recorded since 2010, though at much higher absolute levels. The 76.6 GW exactly coincides with the upper end of the high scenario forecasted in the previous Global Market Outlook, due to a number of markets exceeding expectations. In 2016, global solar power capacity exceeded 300 GW, after it took the 200 GW mark the year before, and the 100 GW level in 2012. The total installed solar PV power capacity increased 33% to 306.5 GW by the end of 2016, up from 229.9 GW in 2015.

 

 

Renewables contribute significantly to increased access to energy services for people who currently lack it.
However, a debate is required about how this process can be accelerated and expanded, and how renewables can fuel the economic development not only of (least) developed countries but also rapidly growing economies such as China and India, while avoiding the expansion of fossil fuels during the economic growth period.
The international energy expert community reached a consensus on the importance of renewables in providing access to energy for the rural poor and that existing finance programs for adaptation and mitigation should be combined to enable the implementation of renewables. However, the role for renewables to supply sufficient
energy for rapidly for developing countries is still controversial. Thus, the energy access debate needs to be expanded from small-scale applications for households, and should reflect the need for industrial power supply as well.

Key Facts

Notable developments in the CPV market and industry in recent years include:
1. Cumulative installations (already grid-connected): >370 MWp
2. Several power plants with capacity ≥ 30 MWp:
o Golmud, China, built by Suncore: 60 (2012) and 80 MWp (2013)
o Touwsrivier, South Africa, built by Soitec: 44 MWp (2014)
o Alamosa, Colorado, US, built by Amonix: 30 MWp (2012)
(see installation data base: http://cpvconsortium.org/projects)
3 Demonstrated reliability, with field data for more than 7 years [1],[2]

Various developments in CPV research and technology have been achieved as well,
including:
1 Certified record value for solar cell efficiency of 46.0 % by Fraunhofer ISE, Soitec, CEA-LETI [3],[4]
2 Certified record efficiency of 43.4% for a mini-module consisting of a single full glass lens and a wafer-bonded four-junction solar cell by Fraunhofer ISE [3],[5]
3 Certified record value for module efficiency of 38.9 % by Soitec [3],[6]
4 Averaged yearly field performance data for power plants with > 100 kWp were reported that achieved performance ratios of 74-80 % [1],[2]
5 Recent R&D results can be found in the proceedings of the latest International CPV conference. The next CPV conference will take place in Ottawa, Canada May 01-03, 2017

 

1. What purpose does this guide serve?
Germany is leaving the fossil-nuclear age behind, paving the way for photovoltaics (PV) to play a significant role in a future shaped by sustainable power production. This compilation of current facts, figures and findings is regularly updated. It aims to help in creating an overall assessment of PV growth in Germany

 

Falling module prices, foray of large foreign players and Indian conglomerates, declining Interest rates, stronger payment security, improving infrastructure and drop in the return expectation of players led to competitive bidding.
 
Credit quality of competitively bid solar projects to be supported by lower counterparty risk and lower capital costs.
 
Building a robust network, scheduling of RE power and flexibility in other conventional sources critical to support expansion; further timely execution and implementation, to be key monitorable.
 
Downward revision of PPA tariffs would adversely impact the returns of solar projects. A 10 paise/unit reduction in tariff impacts equity internal rate of return by by 150-160 bps for solar power.
 
Contract termination is not legally allowed if there is no delay in project commissioning.
Even globally, for instance in Germany, despite, a fall in feed-in-tariff, there has been no instance of such renegotiations on long term contracts.
 
Further precedence is on contrary as an attempt of reneging ~960 MW of PPA contracts by GUVNL was struck down by APTEL in 2013.

 

https://www.slideshare.net/NehaBarangaliSolarQu/tariff-cloud-over-solar-projects-82028712

 

 

 

Falling module prices, foray of large foreign players and Indian conglomerates, declining Interest rates, stronger payment security, improving infrastructure and drop in the return expectation of players led to competitive bidding.
 
Credit quality of competitively bid solar projects to be supported by lower counterparty risk and lower capital costs.
 
Building a robust network, scheduling of RE power and flexibility in other conventional sources critical to support expansion; further timely execution and implementation, to be key monitorable.
 
Downward revision of PPA tariffs would adversely impact the returns of solar projects. 
 
A 10 paise/unit reduction in tariff impacts equity internal rate of return by by 150-160 bps for solar power.
 
Contract termination is not legally allowed if there is no delay in project commissioning.
 
Even globally, for instance in Germany, despite, a fall in feed-in-tariff, there has been no instance of such renegotiations on long term contracts.
 
Further precedence is on contrary as an attempt of reneging ~960 MW of PPA contracts by GUVNL was struck down by APTEL in 2013.
 

Rapidly rising energy demand and reliance on fossil fuels
 
India’s energy needs are rising fast, with growth in electricity demand and other energy uses among the highest in the world. In one direction lies a future heavily reliant on fossil fuels; and in the other, a more diverse energy mix based on greater use of renewables. If India follows the first route, it risks locking its energy system into today’s pattern – with increasing levels of air pollution, uncertainties around meeting its sustainability targets and concerns about supply and sourcing for coal, oil and natural gas. The government, contemplating a better path, has taken steps to increase renewables and move the country towards a sustainable future. Still, much remains to be done. This report provides a perspective on the changes required for India to achieve an affordable, secure, inclusive and environmentally friendly energy system.
 
India’s socio-economic characteristics make it unique among the world’s major energy-consuming economies. Per capita income is low, but is expected to grow quickly as India becomes the world’s most populous country towards the end of this decade. Population and economic growth, combined with accelerating urbanisation, will increase the number of people living in cities and towns from approximately 435 million in 2015 to 600 million by 2030. Urban populations consume more energy and – importantly in India’s case – significantly more electricity.
 
India’s total demand for energy will more than double by 2030, while electricity demand will almost triple. Ensuring that India’s growing population has access to energy, and meeting the country’s ambitious economic growth targets, will require massive investments in the power, transport, buildings and industry sectors. Despite rapidly growing demand and significant renewable energy potential, India is set to install less renewable power-generation capacity than China, Germany or the United States. India’s electricity demand has grown by 10% a year over the past decade. Rapid growth is expected to continue, requiring massive investments in power-generation capacity and related infrastructure. This creates an important opportunity for renewable energy deployment, assuming the right policies are in place and policy makers start planning for it now.
 
Despite rapid strides in adding power capacity, India continues to be plagued by widespread energy poverty. Much of the population lacks access to clean and affordable energy. Estimates suggest that 80 million households, or more than 300 million people, have limited or no access to electricity. While the electricity grid now covers much of the country, reaching rural or remote areas with the necessary transmission and distribution infrastructure often remains a challenge. Supply constraints, therefore, persist.
 
In economic terms, the health impact of outdoor air pollution costs about 3% of India’s annual gross domestic product, and indoor air pollution adds significantly to this total. The World Health Organization estimates that the number of deaths from ambient air pollution reached 700 000 in 2010. Besides, 400
million Indians (90% of them women) are exposed to respiratory, pulmonary and vision hazards associated with indoor air pollution from burning traditional biofuels. Both outdoor and indoor air pollution must be addressed through clean and sustainable rural and urban energy supplies.
 
If business continues as usual and present energy and environmental policies persist, fossil fuels will still dominate India’s total energy mix in 2030 and beyond. Such a pathway, known as the Reference Case in this report, relies heavily on fossil fuels along with unsustainable and inefficient uses of bioenergy to meet most of the country’s rising energy demand. While the growth of renewable power generation will accelerate, even faster increases are expected in the use of coal for industry, natural gas in residential and commercial buildings, and oil in transport. India’s demand for coal is set to triple by 2030. As a result, the share of modern renewables could decrease from around 17% to only 12% of India’s total energy mix by 2030. A large share of energy demand will need to be supplied by imports, increasing energy security risks. Growing reliance on coal imports will add to India’s existing import dependency for oil and gas.
 

Highlights

• Wind and solar photovoltaics (PV) are currently the fastest-growing sources of electricity globally. A “next-generation” phase of deployment is emerging, in which wind and solar PV are technologically mature and economically affordable.

• The success of variable renewable energy (VRE) is driving change in power systems around the globe. Electricity generation from both technologies is constrained by the varying availability of wind and sunshine, which causes fluctuations in the electricity output of VRE sources over time. As a result, changes to the way electricity generation and consumption are balanced may be required. The degree to which this poses a challenge depends on the interplay of several factors that vary by country.

• As long as the contribution of wind and solar PV to the annual electricity mix does not exceed a few percentage points, their integration poses few challenges. However, as VRE enters its next generation of deployment, the issue of system and market integration becomes a critical priority for renewables policy and energy policy more broadly.

• A comprehensive and systemic approach is the appropriate answer to system integration, best captured by the notion of transformation of the overall power system. This requires strategic action in three areas:

• System-friendly deployment, which aims to maximise the net benefit of wind and solar power for the entire system.
• Improved operating strategies, such as advanced renewable energy forecasting and enhanced scheduling of power plants.
• Investment in additional flexible resources, comprising demand-side resources, electricity storage, grid infrastructure and flexible generation.
• Wind and solar power can facilitate their own integration by means of system-friendly deployment strategies. Six areas are most important:
• System service capabilities. Technological advances have greatly improved the degree to which VRE output can be forecast and controlled in real time. With the right framework conditions in place, VRE can help to balance supply and demand despite its dependence on the availability of wind and sunlight. For example, Denmark has gradually increased the role of wind power in providing system services and has updated technical standards (grid codes) to ensure the performance of new plants.


• Location of deployment. With the cost of solar PV and (onshore) wind power falling rapidly, deployment is becoming economically feasible even in lower resource conditions.

As a result, there are more choices for locating power plants, which means that they can be placed to produce electricity closer to demand. For example, through its new auction system Mexico has attracted solar PV investments in areas of high electricity prices, i.e. in areas where solar PV has a high system value, rather than in locations of best resource. 

• Technology mix. The output of wind and solar power is complementary in many regions of the world. VRE can also be complementary to other renewable resources such as hydropower. Deploying a mix of technologies can thus bring valuable synergies; for example, Brazil is developing both wind power and new hydro resources.

 

This report benchmarks U.S. solar photovoltaic (PV) system installed costs as of the first quarter of 2017 (Q1 2017). We use a bottom-up methodology, accounting for all system and projectdevelopment costs incurred during the installation to model the costs for residential, commercial, and utility-scale systems.

Renewable Energy and Jobs – Annual Review 2017 presents the status of renewable energy employment, both by technology and in selected countries, over the past year. In this fourth edition, the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) finds that renewable energy employed 9.8 million people around the world in 2016 – a 1.1% increase over 2015.

As solar photovoltaic (PV) power systems become increasingly competitive, continued market growth depends on assurances of performance and durability. Quality assurance protects and accelerates future PV investments, lowers capital costs, improves performance, extends module lifespans and lowers the resulting electricity costs.


From less than 10 gigawatts (GW) worldwide in 2006, installed solar PV capacity reached nearly 300 GW in 2016. More than 71 GW was added in 2016, with over USD 113 billion invested in solar energy technologies.

However, comprehensive quality assurance requires physical and institutional infrastructure. This so-called, Quality Infrastructure (QI), comprises the total institutional network and legal framework that formulates and implements standards. It also includes testing, certification, metrology and accreditation.


This handbook from the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) outlines the best practices to develop and implement QI for solar PV. The data and analysis provides:

  • Guidance for establishing proper QI mechanisms, showcased through successful experiences with utility-scale, distributed-generation and off-grid PV development in 11 countries;
  • Five case studies offering quantified cost-benefit analysis for QI implementation at different stages of PV plant development.

The benefits achieved are consistently seen to outweigh the costs of QI implementation. Independent quality testing under engineering, procurement and construction (EPC) contracts can boost PV system performance by 2−3%, one case study shows.

QI implementation can be incremental, reflecting country context and PV market maturity. Yet QI remains essential along the entire value chain to create robust PV markets and build up confidence among investors, policy makers and consumers. The resulting quality assurance helps make PV systems affordable and reliable, as well as environmentally sustainable and economically viable.

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        As Above

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        As Above

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        As Above

 

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        As Above

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