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Oman aims to lower greenhouse gases (GHG) to cut down carbon emissions. 4% of GHG reduction will be based on national efforts and 3% would necessitate grants and other forms of concessional financing and help with capacity building and institutional strengthening as per the Sultanate’s Second Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC).
According to the report by UNFCCC, “The proposed renewable energy projects, energy efficiency plans, and energy conservation initiatives would enable the Sultanate to slow GHG emission growth and reduce them by 7% in 2030.”
As per the report, by 2030, a GDP growth rate of 3% annually is predicted with a population of 6.3 Million at about 125.254 metric tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent (MTCO2e)
Article 6 of the Paris Agreement is an additional mechanism for the Sultanate to achieve cost-efficient emission reductions, facilitate the transfer of carbon mitigation technology, and deliver significant sustainable development co-benefits.
“Such co-benefits would reduce air pollutants, generate jobs, and lay the ground for the just transition to a climate-resilient economy and society,” said the report.
The NDC is rooted in the Oman vision 2040 and the National Energy Strategy to support a gradual transition to a low carbon economy and an energy matrix significantly lower in carbon emissions.
The main pillars of the 2030 carbon control plan are the massive deployment of renewable energy and the deepening of energy efficiency actions in the Sultanate. By 2027, a target to derive 20% of electricity has been set by the National Energy Strategy from renewables.
Between 2021 to 2027, the plan to get renewable energy at least 2660 MW with 79% of solar PV and 21% of wind. 2021 end, the first large-scale solar PV project of Sultanate’s 500 MW will begin its operation.
The National Energy Strategy further enhances the gas-fired plant’s overall energy efficiency in conjunction with the clean energy plans. The energy efficiency of the gas-fired plants’ has improved by 13% between 2004 and 2015 (from 26% to 39%). Between 2015 and 2020, the improvement was even more significant at 15.63% from 39% to 55%.
As per the report, the continuous increase in overall energy efficiency was attributed to the older, less productive plants’ closure, technical advances in the gas-fired plants, and a switch to combined-cycle plants.
The gas-fired plants’ efficiency will continue to get better between 2021-2025 by about 11% (from 55% to 63%).
“The need for Oman to cope with climate threats is enormous, and the resources to address this are limited. Therefore, mobilizing climate finance from a variety of sources is a top priority of the NAP process that will be implemented over 2021-2024.”
The government entities accountable for executing and catalyzing public and private investments are the Authority for Public Services Regulation, the Ministry of Energy and Minerals, and the Oman Power and Water Procurement Company (OPWP) in the renewable energy plan.