U.S. DOE Reports Highlight Path to Industrial Decarbonization and Virtual Power Plants


The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has released groundbreaking reports under its “Pathways to Commercial Liftoff” series, focusing on the potential for industrial decarbonization and the implementation of Virtual Power Plants (VPPs) to accelerate the clean energy transition. These reports, initiated in March 2023, serve as a vital resource for private sector partners and industries, offering insights into achieving full-scale deployment of clean energy technologies. The importance of industrial decarbonization and VPPs cannot be overstated, as they play pivotal roles in reducing carbon emissions, bolstering energy system resilience, and aligning with President Biden’s ambitious clean energy goals of 100% clean electricity by 2035 and a net-zero emissions economy by 2050.


U.S. Secretary of Energy Jennifer M. Granholm expressed the administration’s commitment stating, “This Administration is committed to engaging with our private sector partners to accelerate the commercialization and deployment of key technologies needed to achieve the President’s ambitious climate and decarbonization goals. The reports released today provide in-depth analysis of emerging technologies and clear benchmarks to help guide targeted investments and propel the U.S. toward our clean energy future.”


The Biden Administration has placed significant emphasis on reducing emissions, with a particular focus on transforming industrial sectors and optimizing energy management systems. The latest reports within the Liftoff series delve deeply into industrial decarbonization, uncovering substantial opportunities in sectors such as chemicals and refining to drastically reduce their carbon footprint. Simultaneously, the focus on VPPs demonstrates how evolving energy solutions can effectively balance demand and supply, reduce expenses, and enhance reliability. By targeting these crucial areas, the nation moves closer to achieving its broader clean energy and climate objectives.

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Industrial Decarbonization Takes Center Stage

The Industrial Decarbonization Liftoff reports highlight a pivotal opportunity to overhaul industrial systems, fostering energy and environmental justice. These reports present an overview of pathways to decarbonization across eight key industrial sectors: chemicals, refining, iron & steel, food & beverage processing, pulp & paper, cement, aluminum, and glass.

Key findings from the Industrial Decarbonization Liftoff reports include:

  • Carbon-intensive industrial sectors are at a crossroads, with society’s focus now on accelerating deep decarbonization. This presents a unique moment for American industry and the DOE to seize.
  • There’s a risk of U.S. industrial players falling behind net-zero targets by prioritizing short-term, easily implementable solutions. However, momentum is building for the deployment of industrial decarbonization solutions.
  • The Bipartisan Infrastructure Law and Inflation Reduction Act have introduced unprecedented tools to support industrial decarbonization. Additionally, customers are increasingly demanding low-carbon products (e.g., steel for automobiles), and early movers in the private sector are emerging.
  • Achieving significant reductions may necessitate up to $1,100 billion in capital expenditure and a significant shift in leadership and technology adoption across various sectors.
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To provide deeper insights into selected sectors, the DOE is also releasing sector-specific deep-dive reports on Decarbonizing Chemicals and refining and on Low-Carbon Cement. These reports discuss specific levers and deployment targets needed for these sectors to remain on track with decarbonization goals.

The Rise of Virtual Power Plants

The DOE has also unveiled the Virtual Power Plants Liftoff report, shedding light on the potential of VPPs. VPPs are aggregations of distributed energy resources (DERs), including smart appliances, rooftop solar with batteries, electric vehicles (EVs) and chargers, and commercial and industrial loads. They can balance electricity demand and supply while providing grid services akin to traditional power plants. VPPs are currently at a critical juncture, poised to manage growing electrical demand and enhance grid reliability as traditional energy sources phase out.

Key findings from the Virtual Power Plants Liftoff report include:

  • As electrical demand escalates and traditional energy sources like coal and gas diminish, VPPs are essential. With the rapid adoption of distributed energy resources, such as EV chargers and rooftop solar, VPPs have the potential to harness this surge. However, scalable and repeatable models are urgently needed across states.
  • To unlock their full potential, VPPs require scalable models, regulatory support, and a broad coalition of stakeholders engaged in their development and deployment.
  • Tripling the current scale of VPPs by 2030 could expand the U.S. grid’s capacity to support rapid electrification while reducing overall grid costs by $10 billion annually.
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The Liftoff reports part of an ongoing series, are designed to catalyze public and private sector engagement, expediting the commercialization of crucial clean energy technologies. They provide insights into the current landscape, future potential, and challenges that need to be addressed for the successful commercial deployment of key clean energy technologies. The DOE developed these reports through extensive collaboration and a mixture of system-level and project-level financial modeling, with additional reports planned in the coming months. Moreover, other clean energy sectors, such as clean hydrogen and advanced nuclear, are continually assessed as part of DOE’s commitment to real-time, dynamic insights.

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